استادیار، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج
جو (Hordeum vulgare L.) بعد از گندم از لحاظ سطح زیر کشت در ایران مقام دوم را دارد. بهمنظور شناسایی و گزینش ژنوتیپهای مطلوب جو، نوزده لاین امیدبخش، به همراه رقم بهرخ به عنوان شاهد در قالب طرح بلوکهای کـامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی نیشابور طی سه سال زراعی 98-1395 کشت و مورد مطالعه قرار گرفتند. صفات اصلی شامل تعداد روز تا ظهور سنبله، تعداد روز تا رسیدگی، طول دوره پرشدن دانه، وزن هزار دانه، ارتفاع بوته و عملکرد دانه اندازهگیری شدند. از تجزیه GGE بایپلات، تجزیه بایپلات صفت×ژنوتیپ و برآورد وراثتپذیری و سود ژنتیکی جهت بررسی اهداف این پژوهش استفاده شد. بر اساس نتایج تجزیه پایداری، ژنوتیپهای G12 و G3 به عنوان لاینهای دارای عملکرد مطلوب و پایدار بوده و نزدیکترین ژنوتیپها به آنها، ژنوتیپهای G9، G11، G15 و G16 بودند. در این پژوهش مشخص شد که ژنوتیپهای دارای عملکرد بالا، از دوره پرشدن دانه طولانی، زمان گلدهی کوتاهتر و ارتفاع بوته کمتر برخوردار بودند و با توجه به وراثتپذیری عمومی و سود ژنتیکی بالا برای صفات مذکور میتوان از آنها برای گزینش لاینهای پرعملکرد بهره گرفت. در مجموع براساس نتایج این پژوهش بهترین ژنوتیپها در منطقه نیشابور براساس عملکرد دانه و پایداری آن، وزن هزار دانه، طول دوره پرشدن دانه و زودرسی ژنوتیپهای 12، 3 و 9 بودند.
Analysis of yield stability, heritability and characterization of barley promising lines in Nishabour
majid Taherian؛ Hamid Reza Nikkhah
Assistant Professor of Horticulture Crop Research Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Resaerch and Education Center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran.
Introduction Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with a cultivated area of nearly one and a half million hectares and with a production of about three million tons per year after wheat is the main crop in the country. Of this amount, about 600,000 hectares with a production of approximately two million tons are related to irrigated barley and about 900,000 hectares with a production of approximately one million tons are related to dryland barley (Ahmadi et al., 2020). In recent years, the shortage of barley production has been felt more than ever and in the comprehensive plan of the country's fodder, It has planned to increase its production in the long run. Similar to other crops, insufficient yield stability in barley is recognized as a one of the factors responsible for the gap between actual yield and potential yield (Cattivelli et al., 2008). In breeding programs, the identification of superior genotypes is difficult due to environmental variability of target locations and the interaction of these variabilities with the investigated genotypes. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the advanced agronomic lines across various environments and over multiple years to ensure their yield stability and production (Yan & Rajcan, 2002). The main objectives of this study were to evaluate grain yield stability and adaptability in some promising barley lines and characterization of barley inbred lines based on multiple traits under irrigation conditions. Materials and Methods Nineteen promising barley lines (G1-G19) along with one check cultivar (Behrokh), were studied during 2016-2019 at Nishabour Agricultural Research Stations. The experimental design at was a randomized complete block with three replications. Several main traits i. e., days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, thousand kernel weight and grain yield were recorded for all genotypes. GGE biplot and genotype by trait (GT) biplot methods were used to yield stability assessment of genotypes and characterization of barley inbred lines based on multiple traits. Combined analysis of variance for grain yield and other traits was analyzed using ADEL-R software. The GGE biplot and GT biplot methodologies were employed to analyze GxE interaction and characterization of barley inbred lines based on multiple traits using GEA-R software (Yan, 2001). Results and discussion The yield combined analysis of variance showed that the effects of year, genotype and genotype×year were significant at 1% probability level. The results also showed that approximately 23.45% of total variance was appertained to year effect, 30.72% to genotype effect and 21.37% to genotype × year interaction. Whole the mean grain yield of the evaluated lines in all years varied from 4.446 to 6.946 ton /ha and the G17 and G12 lines had the lowest and highest grain yield, respectively. Based on the biplot of average-environment coordination (AEC) for simultaneous selection of grain yield and stability of barley genotypes, genotypes G12 and G3 with the high grain yield were the most stable genotypeS. According to resulting from biplot of barley promosing lines in comparison with ideal genotype, G12 and G3 were identified as the ideal genotype. Also the closest genotypes to them were G9, G11, G15 and G16. Based on GT-Biplot polygon, G12, G3 and G9 lines were displayed high grain yield, grain filling period and lowest days to heading. The vector view of GT biplot showed high positive correlation between grain yield with grain filling period and negative correlation with days to heading. The high heritability along with advance genetic for the grain filling period, days to heading and plant height is encouraging from a standpoint of increasing the selection efficiency. In conclusion, the GT biplot offers a useful analytic tool for examining the variation among sets of lines, for exploring multiple trait data and for aiding in multi-trait selection. Conclusion: It was found that the genotypes with the highest grain yield had high the duration of the grain filling period, early in flowering time and Medium to low plant height under irrigated conditions. Based on the results, lines G12, G3 and G9 were the most stable high-yielding genotypes that had high duration of the grain filling period and thousand kernel weight, early in flowering time and low plant height in Nishabour condition.